Últimas publicaciones en Psoriasis Pustulosa Generalizada (PPG).

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Psoriasis pustulosa generalizada (PPG)

Fischer B, et al. IL-17A-driven psoriasis is critically dependent on IL-36 signaling. Front Immunol. 2023

Plaque psoriasis is an autoinflammatory and autoimmune skin disease, affecting 1-3% of the population worldwide. Previously, high levels of IL-36 family cytokines were found in psoriatic skin lesions, thereby contributing to keratinocyte hyperproliferation and infiltration of immune cells such as neutrophils. While treatment with anti-IL36 receptor (IL36R) antibodies was recently approved for generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), it remains unclear, if targeting the IL36R might also inhibit plaque psoriasis. Here we show that antibody-mediated inhibition of IL36R is sufficient to suppress imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation and represses the disease's development in a model that depends on IL-17A overexpression in the skin. Importantly, treatment with anti-IL36R antibodies inhibited skin inflammation and attenuated psoriasis-associated, systemic inflammation. This is possibly due to a widespread effect of IL36R inhibition, which not only suppresses pro-inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes, but also the activation of other immune cells such as T-cells or dendritic cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibition of the IL-36 signaling pathway might constitute an attractive, alternative approach for treating IL-17A-driven psoriasis and psoriasis-linked comorbidities.

Vilarrasa E, et al. Approach to the Epidemiology, Disease Management, and Current Challenges in the Management of Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Through a Survey Conducted Among Spanish Dermatologists. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2023

Background: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare and severe inflammatory skin disease characterised by recurrent or intermittent flares. Epidemiological and disease management data in Spain are limited. Our goal was to estimate the epidemiology of GPP, explore its management, and reach consensus on the current challenges faced in Spain. Methods: An electronic survey was submitted to dermatologists from the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology Psoriasis Working Group. This group is experienced in the management of GPP. It included a Delphi consensus to establish the current challenges. Results: A total of 33 dermatologists responded to the survey. A 5-year prevalence and incidence of 13.05 and 7.01 cases per million inhabitants, respectively, were estimated. According to respondents, the most common GPP symptoms are pustules, erythema, and desquamation, while 45% of patients present > 1 annual flares. A total of 45% of respondents indicated that flares often require a length of stay between 1 and 2 weeks. In the presence of a flare, 67% of respondents often or always prescribe a non-biological systemic treatment as the first-line therapy [cyclosporine (55%); oral retinoid (30%)], and 45% a biological treatment [anti-TNFα (52%); anti-IL-17 (39%)]. The dermatologists agreed that the main challenges are to define and establish specific therapeutic goals to treat the disease including the patients' perspective on the management of the disease. Conclusion: Our study describes the current situation on the management of GPP in Spain, increasing the present knowledge on the disease, and highlighting the current challenges faced at the moment.

Rivera-Diaz R, et al. Generalized pustular psoriasis: practical recommendations for Spanish primary care and emergency physicians. Postgrad Med. 2023

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare chronic inflammatory skin disease that can lead to life-threatening complications and require emergency medical treatment. Recurrent GPP flares are characterized by the sudden onset of widespread erythematous skin rash with sterile pustules, at times associated with fever, chills, general malaise, and other systemic inflammatory manifestations. Systemic complications such as cardiorespiratory failure, infections, and sepsis are potentially life-threatening and can result in an emergency department visit and/or hospitalization. Acute GPP episodes can be difficult to recognize and diagnose. The low incidence of the disease, its relapsing nature, the unpredictability of flare onset, and the lack of standardized diagnostic criteria are major obstacles to achieving rapid recognition and diagnosis in both the emergency department and the hospital setting. There is scarce evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of treatments commonly used for GPP; consequently, there is an unmet need for therapies that specifically target the condition. Our aim is to present a multidisciplinary approach to GPP to achieve a rapid diagnosis ensuring that the patient receives the most appropriate treatment for their pathology. The main recommendation for primary care and emergency physicians is to contact a dermatologist immediately for advice or to refer the patient when GPP or a flare is suspected.

Xu Z, et al. Development and validation of a prognostic model for predicting flares in generalized pustular psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2023

No abstract available

Armstrong AW, et al; Medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. Generalized pustular psoriasis: A consensus statement from the National Psoriasis Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2023

No abstract available

Tratamiento para la PPG

Morita A, et al. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous spesolimab for the prevention of generalised pustular psoriasis flares (Effisayil 2): an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2023

Background: Spesolimab is an anti-interleukin-36 receptor monoclonal antibody approved to treat generalised pustular psoriasis (GPP) flares. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of spesolimab for GPP flare prevention. Methods: This multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial was done at 60 hospitals and clinics in 20 countries. Eligible study participants were aged between 12 and 75 years with a documented history of GPP as per the European Rare and Severe Psoriasis Expert Network criteria, with a history of at least two past GPP flares, and a GPP Physician Global Assessment (GPPGA) score of 0 or 1 at screening and random assignment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive subcutaneous placebo, subcutaneous low-dose spesolimab (300 mg loading dose followed by 150 mg every 12 weeks), subcutaneous medium-dose spesolimab (600 mg loading dose followed by 300 mg every 12 weeks), or subcutaneous high-dose spesolimab (600 mg loading dose followed by 300 mg every 4 weeks) over 48 weeks. The primary objective was to demonstrate a non-flat dose-response curve on the primary endpoint, time to first GPP flare. Findings: From June 8, 2020, to Nov 23, 2022, 157 patients were screened, of whom 123 were randomly assigned. 92 were assigned to receive spesolimab (30 high dose, 31 medium dose, and 31 low dose) and 31 to placebo. All patients were either Asian (79 [64%] of 123) or White (44 [36%]). Patient groups were similar in sex distribution (76 [62%] female and 47 [38%] male), age (mean 40·4 years, SD 15·8), and GPP Physician Global Assessment score. A non-flat dose-response relationship was established on the primary endpoint. By week 48, 35 patients had GPP flares; seven (23%) of 31 patients in the low-dose spesolimab group, nine (29%) of 31 patients in the medium-dose spesolimab group, three (10%) of 30 patients in the high-dose spesolimab group, and 16 (52%) of 31 patients in the placebo group. High-dose spesolimab was significantly superior versus placebo on the primary outcome of time to GPP flare (hazard ratio [HR]=0·16, 95% CI 0·05-0·54; p=0·0005) endpoint. HRs were 0·35 (95% CI 0·14-0·86, nominal p=0·0057) in the low-dose spesolimab group and 0·47 (0·21-1·06, p=0·027) in the medium-dose spesolimab group. We established a non-flat dose-response relationship for spesolimab compared with placebo, with statistically significant p values for each predefined model (linear p=0·0022, emax1 p=0·0024, emax2 p=0·0023, and exponential p=0·0034). Infection rates were similar across treatment arms; there were no deaths and no hypersensitivity reactions leading to discontinuation. Interpretation: High-dose spesolimab was superior to placebo in GPP flare prevention, significantly reducing the risk of a GPP flare and flare occurrence over 48 weeks. Given the chronic nature of GPP, a treatment for flare prevention is a significant shift in the clinical approach, and could ultimately lead to improvements in patient morbidity and quality of life.

Bellinato F, et al. Spesolimab in patients with flare of generalized pustular psoriasis: A multicentre case-series. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2023

No abstract available

Burden AD, et al. Spesolimab Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Palmoplantar Pustulosis: A Multicentre, Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Phase IIb, Dose-Finding Study. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2023

Introduction: We evaluated the anti-interleukin-36 receptor antibody spesolimab in patients with moderate-to-severe palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). Methods: This phase IIb trial comprised a loading dose period to week (W) 4, then maintenance dosing to W52. Patients were randomised 2:1:1:1:2 to subcutaneous spesolimab 3000 mg to W4 then 600 mg every 4 weeks (q4w), spesolimab 3000 mg to W4 then 300 mg q4w, spesolimab 1500 mg to W4 then 600 mg q4w, spesolimab 1500 mg to W4, 300 mg q4w to W16 then 300 mg every 8 weeks (q8w), or placebo switching to spesolimab 600 mg q4w at W16. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage change from baseline in Palmoplantar Pustular Area and Severity Index (PPP ASI) at W16. Secondary endpoints included a Palmoplantar Pustular Physician's Global Assessment (PPP PGA) score of 0/1. Safety (including adverse events [AEs], local tolerability) was assessed. Results: 152 patients were treated. The primary endpoint was not met; mean differences for spesolimab versus placebo ranged from - 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: - 31.5%, 2.2%) to - 5.3% (95% CI: - 19.1%, 8.6%); none reached significance. At W16, 23 (21.1%) and two (4.7%) patients in the combined spesolimab and placebo groups, respectively, achieved PPP PGA 0/1 (mean difference 16.4%; 95% CI: 3.8%, 25.7%), increasing to 59 (54.1%; combined spesolimab) and 12 (27.9%; placebo switch to spesolimab) patients at W52. Non-Asian patients had significant improvements in the primary endpoint (mean difference - 17.7%; nominal P = 0.0394) and PPP PGA 0/1 at W16 with spesolimab versus placebo. Rates of AEs and AE-related discontinuations were similar for spesolimab and placebo. Local tolerability events and injection-site reactions were more frequent with spesolimab than placebo. Conclusion: The primary objective to demonstrate a non-flat dose-response relationship and proof-of-concept was not achieved; improvements with spesolimab occurred in secondary endpoints and in non-Asian patients, indicating potential modest benefits. Spesolimab was generally well tolerated ( NCT04015518).

Cardenas-de la Garza JA, et al. Spesolimab treatment in a patient with generalized pustular psoriasis: a case report with 12-month follow-up and literature review. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2023

No abstract available

Song EJ, et al. Exploring the Clinical Assessment, Guidelines, and Options for the Treatment of Generalized Pustular Psoriasis [Podcast]. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2023

Acute episodes of generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), known as "flares", are characterized by the widespread appearance of pustules with surrounding skin erythema, and are often accompanied by systemic symptoms. The clinical course of GPP is unpredictable, and symptoms vary in extent and severity; the disease may be relapsing-remitting with recurrent episodes of pustulosis, or be more persistent. The triggers that may lead to flares include withdrawal of corticosteroids, stress, pregnancy, and infections. GPP-specific assessment tools, such as the Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Physician Global Assessment (GPPGA) and the General Pustular Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (GPPASI), were developed to evaluate the severity of disease, and to monitor the patient's response to therapy during clinical trials. Spesolimab is the first GPP-specific treatment available in the United States for the treatment of GPP flares in adults, and was approved by the US FDA in September 2022. To date, spesolimab has been approved by regulatory agencies in almost 40 countries, including Japan, Mainland China, and the European Union. Spesolimab is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the interleukin-36 receptor, and blocks the downstream effects of the interleukin-36 pathway, which is associated with GPP pathogenesis. Data from clinical trials demonstrate the safety and efficacy of spesolimab in providing rapid clinical improvement for patients with GPP flares. Standardized international guidelines for the diagnosis and management of GPP are needed, and no recent GPP guidelines are available in the US. This podcast discusses clinical assessment tools for GPP (GPPGA and GPPASI), the evolution of GPP management guidelines, the therapeutic landscape of GPP, efficacy and safety data for spesolimab, and examines important considerations for patients living with this condition.





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